Glossary Terms and definitions


Abatement (noise)



To reduce, control or mitigate noise emissions.

Process of removal by erosion, melting, evaporation, or vaporization.

A wearing, grinding or rubbing away by friction, usually (but not always) involving the action of particles against or between surfaces.

Abrasive particles

Abrasive Wear

Absolute (Dynamic) Viscosity

Crystalline particles, specially formed by silica from external contamination.

(Or cutting wear) Comes about when hard surface asperities or hard particles that have embedded themselves into a soft surface and plough grooves into the opposing harder surface, e.g., a journal.

The ratio of shear stress to shear rate, representing a fluid’s internal resistance to flow. Although the fundamental unit of absolute or dynamic viscosity is the poise, results are often expressed in centipoise (cP). 1 centipoise equals .01 poise.

Absolute Pressure

Absolute Viscosity

Absorbent Filter

The sum of atmospheric and gage pressure.

A term used interchangeably with viscosity to distinguish it from either kinematic viscosity or commercial viscosity. Absolute viscosity is the ratio of shear stress to shear rate. It is a fluid’s internal resistance to flow. The common unit of absolute viscosity is the poise. Absolute viscosity divided by fluid density equals kinematic viscosity. It is occasionally referred to as dynamic viscosity. Absolute viscosity and kinematic viscosity are expressed in fundamental units. Commercial viscosity such as Saybolt viscosity is expressed in arbitrary units of time, usually seconds.

A filter medium that holds contaminant by mechanical means.




The process by which one substance draws itself into another substance. An example is a sponge picking up water, or on oil recovering gasoline from wet natural gas

The assimilation of one material into another; in petroleum refining, the use of an absorptive liquid to selectively remove components from a process stream.

The process by which one substance draws itself into another substance. An example is a sponge picking up water, or on oil recovering gasoline from wet natural gas

AC Fine Test Dust (ACFTD)

Acceptable Risk


A test contaminant used to assess both filters and the contaminant sensitivity of all types of tribological mechanisms.

Acceptability of risk can be determined on ‘value judgements’ of knowledgeable people from the business unit.  Risk categories should be established for prioritising the implementation of controls.

A system failure, such as a fatality, injury, occupational illness, loss of containment, uncontrolled discharge to the environment, public complaint, legal claim or any other HSE non-conformance.




An in-line vessel that stores fluid under pressure for later release; used in some larger hydraulic systems.

A container in which fluid is stored under pressure as a source of fluid power.

An in-line vessel that stores fluid under pressure for later release; used in some larger hydraulic systems.




The closeness of a measured result to the actual (true) value.

A widely used, highly voatile solvent. It is readily absorbed by breathing, ingestion or contact with the skin. Workers who have inhaled acetone have reported respiratory problems

Any one of various hydrogen-containing molecules or ions capable of giving up a proton to a base, of accepting an unshared pair of electrons from a base, or of reacting with a base to form a salt. A more limited definition restricts the acid to a hydrogen-containing substance that contains a non-metallic radical and produces hydrogen ions when placed in solution.

Acid digestion

Acid Number

Acid Sludge

process of dissolving a sample in an acid matrix, usually accompanied by heating.

The quantity of base, expressed in milligrams of potassium hydroxide, that is required to neutralize the acidic constituents in 1 g of sample.

The residue left after treating petroleum oil with sulfuric acid for the removal of impurities. It is a black, viscous substance containing the spent acid and impurities.

Acid Treating



A refining process in which unfinished petroleum products, such as gasoline, kerosene, and lubricating oil stocks, are contacted with sulfuric acid to improve their color, odor, and other properties

Specific to oil analysis, acidity denotes the presence of weakly and strongly acidic materials whose total concentration is usually defined in terms of the TAN (Total Acid Number).

A class of compounds that can be corrosive when concentrated. Weak acids, such as vinegar and citric acid, are common in foods. Strong acids, such as muriatic (or hydrochloric), sulfuric and nitric acid, have many industrial uses and can be hazardous to those unfamiliar with their handling. Acids are chemical “opposites” to the bases, in so far as they can neutralize each other.

Action level

Action Plan

Activated sludge

A directive established by environmental protection agencies to identify the concentration of a substance in a particular medium (water, soil, etc.) that may present a health risk when exceeded. If the contaminants are in concentrations above their action levels, measures must be taken to reduce the contamination.

A description of steps to be taken in order to achieve a goal or objective.  It should include, but is not limited to, assignment of actions, responsibilities, time frames, and performance measures.

A term used to describe sludge that contains microorganisms that decompose organic contaminants (eg benzene) into liquid waste streams for simpler substances such as water and carbon dioxide. It is also the product formed when the raw sewage is mixed with the bacteria-laden sludge, then stirred and aerated to destroy the organic matter.

Active metal

Activity (of a radioactive isotope)

Acts and Regulations

A metal ready to corrode, or being corroded. Contrast with noble metal.

The number of particles or photons ejected from a radioactive substance per unit time.

Acts and Regulations are legally enforceable documents.

Acute Hazards



The number of particles or photons ejected from a radioactive substance per unit time.

An agent added to oils, fuels, and coolants to impart specific beneficial properties to the finished products. Additives create new fluid properties, enhance properties already present and reduce the rate at which undesirable changes take place in a fluid during service. Selected additives are:

Dispersants, purpose: keep sludge, carbon and other deposit precursors suspended
Detergents typical compounds: succinimides, neutral metallic sulfonates, phenates, polymeric detergents, amines
Basic Metal purpose:neutralize acids, prevent corrosion
Compounds typical compounds:overbased metallic sulfonates, phenates, carbonates
Oxidation Inhibitors purpose:prevent or control oxidation of oil by forming oxygen-inactive compounds and / or scavenging free oxygen
typical compounds:zinc dialkyldithiophosphates; aromatic amines, sulfurized products, hindered phenols
Extreme Pressure (EP) Antiwear Additives purpose:reduce wear, prevent scuffing and seizing by forming protective surface films
typical compounds:zinc dialkyldithiophosphates; tricresylphosphates, organic phosphates, chlorine and sulfur compounds
Viscosity Index Improvers purpose:reduce the rate of viscosity change with temperature
typical compounds:polyisobutylene, methacrylate polymers, olefin copolymers- may incorporate dispersants
Rust Inhibitors purpose:prevent the formation of rust on metal surfaces by formation of surface film or neutralization of acids
typical compounds:high base additives, sulfonates, phosphates, organic acids or esters, amines
Corrosion Inhibitors purpose:prevent corrosive attack on alloy bearings or other metallic surfaces
typical compounds:organically active sulfur, phosphorus, nitrogen compounds such as phosphites, metal salts of thiophosphoric acid, sulfurized waxes, terpenes
Antifoamants purpose:reduce foam with surface tension modifiers that break up large surface bubbles, or small entrained bubble reducers
typical compounds:silicones, organic polymers
Friction Modifiers purpose:reduce or modify friction
typical compounds:long chain polar compounds, (amides, phosphates, phosphites, acids, etc.), molybdenum disulfides
Metal Deactivators purpose:form surface films so metal surfaces do not catalyze oil oxidation
typical compounds:zinc dialkyldithiophosphates, metal phenates, organic nitrogen compounds
Pour Point Depressants purpose:lower “freezing” point of oils assuring free flow at low temperatures
typical compounds:low molecular weight methacrylate polymers
Emulsifiers purpose:permit water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsions by changing interfacial tension
typical compounds:soaps of fatty acids, sulfonic or napthenic acids
Demulsifiers purpose:lower emulsion stability
typical compounds:heavy metal soaps, alkaline earth sulfonates
Tackiness Agents purpose:increase adhesiveness of lubricant on metal surfaces; reduce runoff
typical compounds:high molecular weight polymers, aluminum soaps of unsaturated fatty acids
Oiliness Agents purpose:lower friction under near-boundary conditions
typical compounds: high molecular weight polar compounds such as fatty oils, oxidized waxes or soaps

The force of molecular attraction exerted between two surfaces in contact.


Adverse effects on health

Advisory level

The adhesion of an extremely thin layer of molecules (gases, dissolved solids, or liquids) to the surfaces of solids or liquids with which the molecules are in contact. This process is utilized in a broad range of fluid and additive applications to concentrate one material on the surface of another

Effects of chemicals or other materials that are harmful to health. They can range from relatively mild temporary conditions such as eye or throat irritation, shortness of breath or headaches, to permanent and serious conditions such as cancer, birth defects, or organ damage.

The level above which an environmental protection agency suggests that it is potentially pericious to be exposed to a contaminant, though no action is required.




Passage of air through a solid or liquid, especially a process that promotes the rupture or movement of pollutants in the soil or in the water, exposing them to the air.

Combining or charging a fluid with a gas, as in oil being aerated with air

A highly dispersed suspension of fine solid or liquid particles in a gas.




The process of cooling compressed gases under constant pressure after the final stage of compression.

Water content by Karl Fisher – ASTM D1744.

The action of combining a number of small particles into a larger single mass, often the operating principle for additives which promote particle attraction and clumping.

Air entrainment

Air Pollution


The incorporation of air (bubbles) as a dispersed phase in a liquid. Air entrainment may result from mechanical means or by sudden environmental changes. The presence of entrained air is usually obvious from the hazy, opaque, or bubbly physical appearance of the liquid while dissolved air can only be determined by specific testing.

Emissions from plant or equipment that contain gases or particles in concentrations and for durations that exceed operating approvals, authorities’ standards, and/or result in discomfort or ill health to people, animals or wildlife.

Drifting or blowing in the air.



Alloy steel

Any substance having basic (as opposed to acidic) properties. A more limited definition restricts the alkali to hydroxides of ammonium, lithium, potassium and sodium.

Having the properties of a base, a pH greater than 7. Usually used as an adjective, ie, “alkaline soil”.

Steel containing specified quantities of alloying elements added to effect changes in mechanical or physical properties.

Alluvial deposit

Alluvial deposit

Alpha particle

An area of sand, clay, or other similar material that has been gradually deposited by moving water, such as along a riverbed or shore of a lake

An area of sand, clay, or other similar material that has been gradually deposited by moving water, such as along a riverbed or shore of a lake

A positively charged particle emitted by radioactive atoms. Alpha particles travel less than an inch in the air and a thin sheet of paper holds them. The main danger of alpha particles is in the ingestion of the atoms that emit them. The cells of the body close to the atom can then be irradiated over a long period of time, which can be prolonged if atoms are absorbed into the bone, for example.

Aluminum Alloy

Always safe

Ambient air

White particles that indicate wear of the aluminum component such as the cold turbine housing.

Always safe is ActewAGL’s HSE Management System that will help us to continuously improve our HSE performance and help to ensure legal compliance.

Refers to the surrounding air. Generally, ambient air refers to external air and around a source of air pollution. Often used interchangeably with “outside air.

Ambient temperature


Amosite Asbestos

Temperature of the area or atmosphere around a process, (not the operating temperature of the process itself).

The action of re-opening a released workorder for modification of test, results or other details, general, task and full amendments are supported

Brown and grey, straight amosite fibres belonging in the amphibole group, and containing iron and magnesium.


Analysis Expiry Date

Analysis Group

Analytical Ferrography (executable only when DR exists).

The time between extracting / receiving the sample and analysis of the sample

A group in a quote containing one or more report schedules / sale items or packages

Analysis Group


Analytical Ferrography

A group in a quote containing one or more report schedules / sale items or packages.

The compound / element / analyte from the report schedule / sale method including the LOR, Unit and analyte group

It is a powerful diagnosis capable of detecting large particles of wear, that is, up to 100 microns. In it a qualitative evaluation of the wear occurs through microscopic examination of suspended debris in a sample of used oil.


Aniline point


Free of water, especially water of crystallization (water present as an internal part of the structure of a salt crystal).

The minimum temperature for complete miscibility of equal volumes of aniline and the sample. A product of high aniline point will be Iow in aromatics and naphthenes and, therefore, high in paraffins. Aniline point is often specified for spray oils, cleaning solvents, and thinners, where effectiveness depends upon aromatic content. In conjunction with API gravity, the aniline point may be used to calculate the net heat of combustion for aviation fuels.

A generic term denoting a treatment consisting of heating a metal to a suitable temperature and holding it there, followed by cooling at a suitable rate. This process is used primarily to soften metallic materials, but also to simultaneously produce desired changes in the metal’s microstructure or other properties. When the term is used by itself, full annealing is implied. When the treatment is applied only for the relief of stress, it is properly called stress-relieving or stress-relief annealing.


API base stock

API engine service categories

Forming a conversion coating on a metal surface by anodic (electron-removing) oxidation; most frequently applied to aluminum.

base fluid for automotive engine oils. The API (American Petroleum Institute) currently designates five classes of base stocks. These stock types are independent of crude source or processing. Instead, they are based on physical characteristics of the base stock, which are then related to formulated engine oil performance:

Group I Contain <90% saturates and/or >0.03% sulfur, with viscosity index ³ 80 and <120. Commonly referred to as conventional, solvent refined base stocks.
Group II Contain ³ 90% saturates and £ 0.03% sulfur, with viscosity index ³ 80 and <120. Commonly referred to as severely hydrotreated and/or hydrocracked base stocks.
Group III Contain ³ 90% saturates, with £ 0.03% sulfur, with viscosity index ³ 120. Commonly referred to as VHVI or XHVI base stocks.
Group IV PAO’s (polyalphaolefins)
Group V All other base stocks not included in Groups I, II, III, or IV.(where < stands for less than, £ stands for less than or equal to, ³ stands for greater than or equal to, and > stands for greater than)

Gasoline and diesel engine oil quality levels established jointly by API, SAE, and ASTM, and sometimes called SAE or API/SAE categories; formerly called API Engine Service Classifications.

API gravity

Apparent viscosity


A gravity scale established by the American Petroleum Institute and in general use in the petroleum industry, the unit being called “the API degree”, which is represented by the equation:API gravity, deg = (141.5/specific gravity at 60/60ºF)-131.5

The ratio of shear stress to rate of shear of a non-Newtonian fluid such as lubricating grease, calculated from Poiseuille’s equation and measured in poises. The apparent viscosity changes with changing rates of shear and temperature and must, therefore, be reported as the value at a given shear rate and temperature.

The action of confirming that a results entered into a run or all results in a run are valid, may be carried out by laboratory technician




Water based.

A layer of rock or sediment that contains water and is capable of producing usable amounts of water. Drinking water and irrigation wells draw water from the underlying aquifer.

Federal, state or state laws, regulations, standards, criteria, or requirements that would apply to the cleaning of hazardous substances in a particular location.



Artesian well

Derived from, or characterized by, the presence of the benzene ring.

A gray metal + D4: E187o, fragile and highly poisonous. It is used as an alloy for metals, especially lead and copper, and is used in insecticides and herbicides. In its inorganic form, it is listed as a cancer-causing chemical under Proposition 65.

A well that flows as a source because of the internal pressure of the aquifer.



Asbestos Containing Material

A generic name given to a family of naturally occurring fibrous silicate minerals. Asbestos fibers were mainly used for insulation and as fire retardant material in building ships and buildings and in other industries, and in brake shoes and brake pads for automobiles. Inhalation of asbestos fibers has been shown to result in lung disease (asbestosis) and lung cancer (mesothelioma). The risk of developing mesothelioma is significantly increased in smokers.

Una forma fibrosa de silicatos minerales e incluye amianto blanco, marrón y azul o cualquier combinación de éstos.

Refers to any material that contains more than 0.1% of asbestos, by volume.




A measure of the amount of inorganic material in lubricating oil. Determined by burning the oil and weighing the residue.

Any element of an organisation’s activities, services or products which will interact with the environment.

Microscopic projections on metal surfaces. Asperities result from normal finishing processes or from any other process or condition which changes the surface profile. Interference between opposing asperities in sliding or rolling wear is a source of friction, and can lead to metal welding and scoring. Ideally, the lubricating film between two moving surfaces should be thicker than the combined height of the opposing asperities.

Associated Codes of Practice and Standards

Associated Industry Organisation


Codes of Practice and Standards, which are called up under a Regulation, are legally enforceable documents.  They provide practical guidance on how to minimise the risks to HSE.

An industry organisation that may have similar hazards (eg. Gas Associations, Electricity Supply Associations, Petroleum Production & Exploration Associations, Liquid Petroleum Gas Associations).

A formal, documented examination of systems, procedures, information, practices and facilities to verify their compliance with a defined set of criteria.

Audit Agenda


Auto-ignition point

A timetable to cover:

– site locations where the audit will be conducted;

– starting and finishing times;

– interview times and names of interviewees; and

– field verification times and sites to be visited.

The action of checking and signing off on an approved result / run

The temperature at which a substance ignites without other sources of energy. Also, associated with the spontaneous ignition and sustained combustion of part or all of the fuel-air mixture in an engine. The flame speed is many times greater than that associated with normal spark ignition, producing a characteristic “knocking” sound.



Background Concentration


A soft, white, non-ferrous alloy of copper, antimony, tin and lead. Found in sleeve/journal bearing overlays.

Represents the average amount of toxic chemicals in the air, water, or soil to which people are routinely exposed. More than half of the toxic air bottom concentration in metropolitan areas comes from automobiles, trucks and other vehicles. The rest comes from industry and business, from agriculture and from the use of paints, solvents and chemicals at home.

Chemical agent that inhibits the growth of bacteria promoted by the presence of water.


Base Price List

Base stock

A material that neutralizes acids. Also, term referring to an oil additive containing colloidally dispersed metal carbonate, used to reduce corrosive wear.

A list of prices at report schedule / sale item level, can be set up as min, price per analyte and max

A primary refined petroleum fraction or a selected synthetic material, into which additives are blended to produce finished lubricants.




A class of compounds that are “opposites” to the acids because they neutralize the acids. Weak bases are used in cooking (baking soda) and cleaning products. Strong bases may be corrosive or “caustic”. Examples of strong bases that are common around the house are drain cleaners, oven cleaners and other heavy duty cleaners. Strong bases can be very dangerous for the tissue, especially the eyes and mouth. I see acid, Alkaline, pH.

Quantity of product resulting from a single blending or other processing operation.

a machine part which positions and supports load and movement through the action of fitted or formed surfaces that move with respect to each other by sliding, rolling, reciprocating, or by combinations of these motions. Selected bearing types are:

Rolling element bearings Deep groove ball
Cylindrical roller
Tapered roller
Spherical roller
Needle roller
Generally consist of two races (rings or raceways) with a set of rolling elements running in their tracks. The rolling elements are in the form of balls or various types of rollers. The outer race is located in a housing and the inner race on the shaft. In ‘self-aligning’ types, often one of the races is not fixed axially but is free to move to allow for limited shaft movement. In ‘thrust’ types, the races are configured to support additional angular contact for axial loading. In needle roller bearings, there is no inner race, no element separator, and the rolling elements turn very close together directly against the shaft.
Plain (sliding)
bearings Journal

Generally consist of a unmoving solid surface conforming to, and operating directly against, an opposing shaft or plate. Journals may be single-piece or in connected sections, and wrap around all or part of the shaft surface. Guide bearings align rotating or reciprocating parts, while thrust bearings prevent a shaft from moving endwise and support heavy directional loads.
Tilting pad
thrust bearing
Characterized by a journal-like enclosure of several separately mounted pivoting pads mounted at right angles to the shaft.
Sector pad
thrust bearing (also known as

Kingsbury bearing)
Characterized by a series of pivoted wedge-shaped segments mounted parallel to the shaft, against a circular thrust collar extending outward at right angles from the shaft.
Flat bearings Various types of slides, guides and ways.



Beta particles

An oil derivative widely used in the chemical industry. Some uses are: synthesis of rubber, nylon, polystyrene and pesticides; and gasoline production. Benzene is a highly volatile chemical easily absorbed by breathing, ingestion or skin contact. Short-term exposure to high concentrations of benzene may result in death following central nervous system depression or fatal heart rhythm disturbances. Long-term, low-level exposures to benzene may result in blood disorders such as aplastic anemia and leukemia. Benzene is listed as a cancer-causing chemical under Proposition 65.

A curb, edge, wall, or mound used to prevent the spread of contaminants. It can be made from various materials, down to earth under certain circumstances.


A very high energy particle identical to an electron emitted by some radioactive elements. Depending on their energy, they penetrate a few inches of tissue. See also Alpha particles, Gamma radiation.

Beta Rating

Beta ratio (ß-ratio)

Billing Agreement

Efficiency-based filter performance rating. This is done using the Multi-Pass Test which counts the number of particles of a given size before and after fluid passes through a filter, over multiple passes of the fluid through the filter being tested.

The ratio of the number of particles greater than a given size entering a filter to the number of particles greater than the same size leaving the filter, under specified test conditions.

A way of grouping costings from multiple workorders in order to provide a single invoice, can be set at client, office, project, purchase order or site level

Billing Entity



Currency under a legal entity e.g. AUD, UAD etc. client can be set up under either billing entity

The process by which concentrations of some toxic chemicals gradually increase in living tissues, such as in plants, fish or people, while breathing contaminated air, drinking contaminated water or eating contaminated food.

A process that uses microorganisms to transform toxic compounds into non-toxic compounds.




Black oils

Waste generated by the treatment of sewage, petroleum refining residues and chemical manufacturing industrial effluent with activated sludge. I see activated sludge.

Transformation of a chemical into others by populations of microorganisms in the soil.

Lubricants containing asphaltic materials, which impart extra adhesiveness, that are used for open gears and steel cables.




Composite of two or more components or lubricants for the purpose of obtaining the desired physical and/or chemical properties. In petroleum product manufacture, a blend may consist of two or more basestocks or a basestock combined with chemical additives.

Rapid growth and spread of a bacterial or algal colony. Also, fluorescence; the color of an oil by reflected light that could differ from its color by transmitted light.

Passage of unburned fuel and combustion gases past the piston rings of internal combustion engines, resulting in fuel dilution and contamination of the crankcase oil.

Boiling point



The temperature at which a substance boils, or is converted into vapor by bubbles forming within the liquid; it varies with pressure.

Usually, a vertical hole drilled into the ground from which soil samples can be collected and analyzed to determine the presence of chemicals and the physical characteristics of the soil.


The vessel containing the sample


Boundary lubrication


In refining, the high-boiling point residual liquid that collects at the bottom of a distillation column, such as a pipe still. Examples of bottoms include such components as heavy fuels and asphalts.

The state of lubrication when conditions exist that do not permit the formation of a lubricant film capable of completely separating the moving parts. Under these conditions, additives are used to increase oil film strength or coat metal surfaces with a sacrificial ‘anti-wear’ film. Anti-wear additives are commonly used in more severe boundary lubrication applications. The more severe cases of boundary lubrication are defined as extreme pressure conditions; they are managed with lubricants containing EP additives that prevent sliding surfaces from fusing together at high local temperatures and pressures.

Any incident that results in or is likely to result in an infringement/improvement/abatement notice being issued by a regulatory body which may or may not be accompanied by a fine or administrative fee.


Brookfield viscometer

BS&W (bottom sediment and water)

Permanent deformation of the bearing surfaces where the rollers (or balls) contact the races. Brinelling results from excessive load or impact on stationary bearings. It is a form of mechanical damage in which metal is displaced or upset without being permanently removed from the surface.

Type of rotational viscometer used for determination of apparent viscosity in cP (centipoise). Measurement is performed based on the torque required to maintain the rotation of a vertical rod/spindle immerse in to a fluid. This kind of instrument is not limited to lubricants.

The material that collects in the bottom of storage tanks, usually composed of oil, water, and foreign matter. Also called bottoms, or bottom settling and water.


Bubble point

Burst pressure rating

British thermal unit. The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water 1 degree Fahrenheit.

the differential (inner vs. outer) gas pressure at which the first steady stream of gas bubbles is emitted from a wetted filter element under specified test conditions.

Maximum specified differential pressure that can be applied to a filter element without outward structural or filter-medium failure.


Bypass filtration

Bypass valve

A usually removable cylindrical lining for an opening used to limit the size of the opening, resist abrasion, or serve as a guide.

Filtration approach in which only part of the total flow of a circulating fluid system passes through a filter at any given time, or approach in which a separate pump and filter combination operates in parallel to the main flow.

Differential pressure valve or fitting on a filter which opens when the filter reaches a preset maximum capacity, assuring continued flow by allowing part or all of the fluid to bypass the filter element.



Calibration / standardization

California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA)

Cadmium is a natural element of the earth’s crust, generally found as a mineral combined with other elements, such as oxygen. As all soils and rocks contain cadmium, it is extracted during the production of other metals like zinc, lead and copper. Cadmium does not erode easily and has many uses. In industry and consumer products, it is used for batteries, pigments, metal coatings and plastics. Cadmium salts are toxic at higher concentrations.


These two terms have a broad or narrow definition, depending on circumstances, and some sources use them interchangably. Calibration connotes extensive or exacting measurements, under specified conditions, to determine how closely the output values of a measuring process or system compare to nationally or internationally traceable standards of verified known value. Once this measurement has been performed, any deviation from required performance specifications may be corrected by adjustment, repair or replacement. Standardization connotes a procedure for making limited routine measurements and adjustments to the process or system in order to correct minor known variations, such as those associated with changes in operating environment or working materials. Calibrations are normally performed at longer intervals (annual or semi-annual) set by instrument manufacturers, official standardizing agencies, or operating circumstances, while standardizations are typically done on a daily or weekly basis. Not all simple systems or processes are readily adjustable–for example, the contents of a liquid-in-glass thermometer. In such a case the calibration would only involve determining the thermometer’s ‘true’ reading as opposed to its stated reading and applying a correction factor, without the corresponding physical adjustments normally associated with the calibration process. For complex instrument systems used in modern oil analysis laboratories, both manual and electronic calibrations and standardizations are essential in maintaining acceptable performance.

Enacted for the first time in 1970 to provide long-term environmental protection, the law requires government decision-makers and public agencies to study the significant environmental effects of proposed activities and that significant preventable harm is avoided or reduced whenever possible. The CEQA also requires the public to know why the lead public body has approved the project in the way it did, and gives the public a way to challenge the agency’s decisions.





A rotating or sliding eccentric part which passes motion to a roller or pin moving against its edge. Used to cyclically raise, lower, or otherwise move a part a specific distance, such as the action of a cam moving an engine’s valves.

A layer, such as clay or synthetic material, is used to prevent rainwater from entering the soil and spreading contamination.


The measure of total content, production or output. For example, the amount of heat a burned fuel will release, or amount of contaminants a filter will hold before an excessive pressure drop is caused.


Capillary viscometer


A property of a solid-liquid system manifested by the tendency of the liquid in contact with the solid to rise above or fall below the level of the surrounding liquid; this phenomenon is seen in a smallbore (capillary) tube.

A viscometer in that the oil flows through a capillary tube.

A group of insecticides related to carbamic acid. They are mainly used in corn, alfalfa, tobacco, cotton, soybeans, fruits and ornamental plants.



Carbon Adsorption

Carbon monoxide

A non-metallic element, number 6 in the periodic table, found in the native (uncombined) form as graphite or diamond. Carbon is a constituent of all organic compounds including coal, petroleum, asphalt, etc. It also occurs in combined form in many inorganic substances; i.e., carbon dioxide, limestone, etc.

A treatment system in which organic contaminants are removed from groundwater and surface water by forcing them through tanks containing activated carbon, a specially treated material that retains these compounds. Activated charcoal is also used to purify contaminated air, absorbing contaminants as air passes through it.


A very poisonous, colorless, odorless gas formed when carbon-containing material burns incompletely, such as in car engines or on charcoal grills used indoors, without adequate ventilation.


Carbon residue

Case drain filter

Cash Sale

Coked material remaining after an oil has been exposed to high temperatures under controlled conditions.

A filter located in a line conducting fluid from a pump or motor housing to reservoir.

A client with an unknown / poor payment history, must pay invoice prior to receiving results


Catalytic converter

Catastrophic failure

A substance which speeds a chemical action without undergoing a chemical change itself during the process.

An integral part of vehicle emission control systems since 1975. Oxidizing converters remove hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide (CO) from exhaust gases, while reducing converters control nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. Both use noble metal (platinum, palladium or rhodium) catalysts that can be “poisoned” by lead compounds in the fuel or lubricant.

Sudden, unexpected failure of a system.


Cavitation damage

CC – Calculado

The formation and instantaneous collapse of innumerable air or vapor pockets (or bubbles) in flowing liquids due to the hydrodynamic generation of rapid and intense pressure changes. This may result from the movement of a solid body, such as a propeller blade or piston. Cavitation can also occur in a hydraulic system as a result of low fluid levels that draw air into the system, producing tiny bubbles that undergo explosive decompression at the pump outlet.

The degradation of a solid body resulting from its exposure to cavitation. This may include loss of material, surface deformation or changes in properties or appearance.

Um método que pode usar resultados em vários métodos para gerar automaticamente um resultado calculado, por ex. Nitrato, Equilíbrio Iônico ou Soma dos PAHs

Cellulose media

Centipoise (cP)

Centistoke (cSt)

A filter material made from plant fibers. Because cellulose is a natural material, its fibers are rough in texture and vary in size and shape. Compared to synthetic media, these characteristics create a higher restriction to the flow of fluids.

A standard reporting unit of absolute viscosity. 1 centipoise = 0.01 poise.

A standard reporting unit of kinematic viscosity. 1 centistoke = 0.01 stoke.

Centistokes – CST

Centralized lubrication

Centrifugal separator

Viscosity unit measured at every 40 ° C or 100 ° C.

A system of lubrication in which a metered amount of lubricant or lubricants for the bearing surfaces of a machine or group of machines are supplied from a central location.

A separator that removes immiscible fluid and solid contaminants that have a different specific gravity than the fluid being purified by accelerating the fluid mechanically in a circular path and using the radial acceleration component to isolate these contaminants.


CHROM – Chromatogram

Chrysotile Asbestos

Chromatogram : Similar to SUBCO however used to send chromatogram data to the client

Similar to SUBCO, however used to send chromatogram data to the client.

A white curly fibre of magnesium silicate.

Claims Rejected by the Insurance Organisation

Class ‘A’ Near Miss


Those injuries for which a workers’ compensation claim has been lodged and the insurer places the claim in dispute.  After investigation the claim is rejected.  These injuries are not used in the calculation of measurement rates or other indicators of performance.

A near miss event where no injury resulted, however it could have resulted in loss of life, major personal injury (eg. injury requiring hospitalisation) or a significant environmental incident.

A client with an open trading account / clear payment history, able to receive results prior to invoice



COA – Certificate Of Analysis

Any company or person who uses the services provided by the laboratory

Certificate Of Analysis : A report containing the analytical results usually generated at workorder release, may be generated prior to release (preliminary)

A report containing the analytical results usually generated at workorder release, may be generated prior to release (preliminary).


COC – Chain Of Custody


Chain Of Custody : Client’s paperwork usually accompanying samples, may be scanned and automatically uploaded to ANGEL and is emailed with each report

Client’s paperwork usually accompanying samples, may be scanned and automatically uploaded to LIMS and is emailed with each report.

Color – ASTM D1500.


Commuting/Recess Injury

Competent Person

The action of approving the workorder to allow the analysis to begin as well as the generation of the SRN and costing

Any injury that occurs during travel while not on duty or during a recess period.  This would normally include travel between place of abode and workplace, travel to technical school for training associated with employment and travel to receive medical treatment for an injury sustained at work.  (If a commuting/recess injury requires medical treatment or time off work it is not recorded in the statistics).

A person is deemed competent when they are capable to perform a task.  This can be measured by qualification or demonstrated skill.


Confined space

Consolidated Costing

An examination of conformity with legislation, regulation, licences, approvals and other documentation.

Any vessel, tank or any other enclosed or partially enclosed space that:

– may have restricted means of entry and exit;

– it is at atmospheric pressure when someone is in space;

– is not intended or designed primarily as a workplace;

– it is not likely that a person will enter it at work; Y

– at any time, contains or is likely to contain:

– potentially harmful levels of pollutants in the atmosphere;

– an atmosphere that does not have a safe oxygen level;

– Anything that can cause engulfment; Y

– anything else that has the potential to represent a danger to personnel entering this space.

The costing based on one or more workorders grouped in a consolidation




Involves meaningful and effective discussion with colleagues to draw on the collective knowledge, experience and ideas of employees and encouraging their participation and input to improve the HSE management systems.  The organisation will consult colleagues involved in the work to enable them to contribute to the determination of how work can be undertaken, to prevent harm to HSE.

The person from the client who submitted the workorder, is the primary workorder contact or will receive a report

The type of vessel e.g. Clear Plastic Bottle – No Preservative, Amber



Contamination Pathways

A chemical substance in concentrations that may pose an immediate or long-term risk to health or well being of humans, farm animals, wildlife or ecology.

Nonmetallic particles observed during Analytical Ferrography are being introduced into the lubricant reservoir. They are abrasive particles that cause an increase of premature wear.

Means by which contamination can reach potentially affected targets.  Depending on the substance, this may include through groundwater, by ingestion, breathing in dust, contact with the skin, or eating vegetation that has taken up contamination.

Contract/Project Manager



The person appointed responsible to manage the work activities performed by either organisation or contract personnel for, or on behalf of, the organisation.

A person (other than an organisation employee) or an entity performing work on behalf of the organisation.

Action taken to eliminate or reduce risk.

Controlled Document

Corrosive Wear

Cost Effective

A HSE document that is formally issued in accordance with a written procedure as part of the management system for HSE issues and for which revisions, amendments and withdrawals are restricted.

Small dark particles identified in the microscope during the ferrography analysis. Caused by acid attack on metal surfaces, especially when lubricating oil is degraded.

In relation to greenhouse gas abatement projects – means a project that has an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) 2 percentage points above the current acceptable hurdle rate for non-greenhouse gas project development.


Credit Note


The list of line items for schedules / packages and other charges for a workorder, prices and descriptions may be edited

The report that cancels out the invoice sent to a client, may be generated automatically in certain cases and usually required a revised invoice

Certified Reference Material


Crocidolite Asbestos

Cutting Wear

Credit Note : A report that credits the previous invoice, may be generated automatically or manually based on changes to a workorder/s or its costing/s

A member of the amphibole group taking the form of blue, straight fibres and containing sodium iron magnesium silicate.

Long spiral or crescent form of particles, resembling machining residues. Comes from abrasive wear or misalignment.


Dangerous Goods



Any materials as defined in the relevant Dangerous Goods legislation.

Duplicate Control Spike

Determinative : Analysis that may or may not include preparation but does not require a specific volume or amount to be recorded, also used for descriptive results e.g. field observations

Deaeration – DA

Decibel (dB)


Deaeration (Air Release ASTM D 3427) at temperatures of 25, 50 or 75 ° C.

The unit used to indicate the relative magnitude of sound pressure level and other acoustic quantities.

Demulsibility – ASTM D 1401.


Docking Station


Mass of oil per unit volume.

A unit designed to convert a laptop computer into a full desktop computer system.  Docking stations typically contain connections for monitors, printers and a keyboard, and some even contain additional hard drives and memory.

Dummy Preparation : Sample preparation without any specific volume or extract steps e.g. sample is poured straight into a tube and tested



Due Diligence

Quantitative Ferrography + Viscosity at 40ºC + Water.

Quantitative ferrography.

Means being able to demonstrate that you have taken all reasonable precautionary measures to avoid an incident occurring.  This can be achieved by:

–        identifying all possible impacts from our activities;

–        assessing the associated risks to the environment;

–        implementing the appropriate safeguards;

–        providing appropriate training and delegating authority; and

–   having a system in place that ensures that all of these actions are done, checked and corrected where necessary.





EDD – Electronic Data Deliverable

Elevated Work Platform

Electronic Data Deliverable : An electronic version of the analytical results e.g. xls, csv, txt or client specific format, may be uploaded to clients database

An electronic version of the analytical results, like xls, csv, txt or client specific format, may be uploaded to clients database.

A telescoping, scissors or other device used to position personnel, equipment and materials at positions above (and below) the base support level.


Emergency Preparedness


A significant event, which threatens life, property, the environment or supply of energy.  This includes, but is not limited to, fire, explosion, spills, gas leaks, off-site events (eg. road accidents), civil disturbances, and natural disasters.

The control of potential emergency events to minimise loss and includes emergency response which is the reactive control of an incident after it has occurred.

Any release to air or water from a point source (such as machinery or equipment) or a non-point source (such as a work site, office facility, etc)

Employer Representative

Emprestar pit

Enhanced Greenhouse Effect

A member of a HSE committee who is appointed by senior management of the business unit.

Uma área onde o solo, areia ou cascalho foi desenterrado para uso em outros lugares.

Observed and inferred increases in global temperatures that have been linked with the increased release of greenhouse gases from human activity.Observed and inferred increases in global temperatures that have been linked with the increased release of greenhouse gases from human activity.

Environmental Impact

Environmental Incident

Environmental Management Plan (EMP)

Any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from an organisation’s activities, products or services.

Any event that harms, or has the potential to harm the environment, and results in, or is likely to result in an infringement/improvement/abatement notice issued by a regulatory body which may or may not be accompanied by a fine or administrative fee.

A plan that documents the specific environmental issues that are identified and the potential impacts that may arise from a project.  The plan also details the proposed mitigative measures to minimise the effect on the physical, biological, social, economic and cultural aspects of the environment.

Environmental Significance



Depends on evaluating a number of criteria for each project.

–        How extensive are the likely impacts (type, size, scope, intensity and duration)?

–        How adverse are the impacts on environmentally sensitive areas?

–   How acceptable are the impacts considering the nature of the impacts (predictability), resilience of the environment, reversibility, manageability, compliance with performance criteria, public interest, need for further studies)?

The relationship between the work activity, the people involved and the work environment in which the work is performed.

Foam – ASTM D892.

Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental (EIA)

Excessive Noise

Execution Date

A process of assessing the potential impacts that activities may have on the environment together with identifying the safeguards necessary to reduce the adverse impacts to an acceptable level.

Noise that exceeds those levels defined under noise related legislation.

The time and date that a runs built indicating the analysis process had begun

Exposure (noise)

External Authority

External Parties

The amount of unprotected sound energy a person is exposed to.

A regulatory authority that may issue the organisation (or contractor) with a notice of a breach of an act or regulation.

These may include:

        regulatory authorities;

        local councils;



        emergency services;

        environmental interest groups; and

–   indigenous interest groups.



First Aid


The word is used in two contexts; refueling an excavated area with uncontaminated soils; and the material used to refuel an excavated area.

Initial care or treatment of an injured or sick person, given as an emergency measure until the services of medically qualified personnel can be obtained if necessary.

The business unit’s HSE management system addressing the organisation HSE overview and any other HSE issues relevant to the business unit. 




How often one could be exposed to the hazard.  I.e. how often the task is performed.

Photomicrographic report, executable only when AN exists.

Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.




Greenhouse Effect

A measure of the approximate percentage of glycol contamination in oil. Glycol is commonly used in the engine cooling system.

Drop point (grease).

The warming of the earth caused by the present of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

Greenhouse Gas


Gases in the atmosphere that produces the greenhouse effect including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and nitrous oxide (N2O).

These provide advisory information on a particular issue.



Hazard Urgency Rating

Hazardous Area

A source of potential harm or a situation with a potential to cause loss.

The severity of hazards varies and determines the timing of any remedial action.

–        Class ‘A’ Hazard:  leader to be informed immediately.

–        Class ‘A’ Near Miss:  leader to be informed immediately and an incident/investigation report must be completed.

–        Class ‘B’ Hazard/Near Miss:  to be attended to within 24 hours.

–   Class ‘C’ Hazard/Near Miss:  to be attended to as soon as practicable (within two weeks of hazard being reported).

An area where flammable gasses or dusts may be present

Hazardous Substances

Health Assessment


Any material as defined or classified in relevant legislation or other legal documents.

A clinical, biological or other health check which may occur before, during or after employment, on return to work after an illness or injury, or to assist in the management of a workers compensation claim.

Any place which is more than 1.8 metres above the surrounding floor or ground level, or as specifically defined in legislation in each jurisdiction.

Hierarchy of Controls

High Risk Contractor

High Risk Plant

When identifying control/mitigation measures the following prioritised control measures should be considered:

–        eliminate the risk (e.g. use a lifting device instead of manual handling; use a “silent” machine instead of a noisy one);

–        substitute the process, equipment or material (e.g. use a biodegradable or non-hazardous substance instead of one with known hazardous properties);

–        isolate the risk (e.g. barricades around a work site; use of sediment controls);

–        engineering controls (e.g. guarding of machinery; bunding of fuel storage);

–        administration controls such as job rotation, work procedures and training;

–   Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) – use as a last resort.

Any organisation or person contracted by the organisation to provide works or services in areas designated as high risk.

Plant, as defined by legislation, which requires to be registered with the relevant government body.

High Voltage

Holding Time

Home-based Work

Any difference in potential between conductors or between the conductors and earth, exceeding 650V (refer Australian Standard AS 3000).

The time in which the extraction / digestion / analysis needs to be performed in, may be based on the sample’s container or presence / absence of a preservative

The regular performance of ordinary hours of service on the home-based site.

Home-based workers

Horas trabalhadas


Employees who conduct their work wholly or partially from their own home (sometimes referred to as tele-workers).

O número de horas trabalhadas baseia-se no número de empregados equivalentes a tempo inteiro (FTE) (este valor exclui os empregados ocasionais). Para fins de LTIFR de toda a organização, os contratados são excluídos – eles são monitorados separadamente. As horas trabalhadas são calculadas mensalmente e são baseadas em 2.000 homens / hora por pessoa / ano ou 166,67 horas por pessoa / mês.

An acronym for Health, Safety and Environment

HSE Issues/Risk Register

HSE Workplace Representative


A permanent and accessible record of identified health, safety and environmental issues.  It must include a description of the issue, a risk assessment and identified controls.

Refers to the designated HSE committee member,  HSE coordinator or HSE representative.

An acronym of a Health and Safety Representative. A HSR is elected by their colleagues within the business unit to be the voice of employees on health and safety issues.



Incidents in Dispute

Infrared Spectra

Anything that did or could result in an injury or illness to any person, damage to plant, negative impact to the organisation’s reputation or negative impact to the environment.

Those injuries for which a workers’ compensation claim has been lodged and the insurer places the claim in dispute.  These injuries are not used in the calculation of measurement rates or other indicators of performance. If the claim is accepted, then it is used in the calculation of measurement rates (eg: LTIFR & MTIFR) and other indicators of performance.

A graph of infrared energy absorbed at various frequencies in the additive region of the infrared spectrum.


Instrument Run

Instrument Runlist

An empowered person appointed by a regulatory authority.

A run built from either a sample / prep run or  a DE or CC method type

A list of runs for all he sections you have access to and can be used to navigate to the result entry screen until approved

Instrument Worklist



A list of samples / prep runs for a particular section that may be ready to be built onto an instrument run, DE and CC method types start off here

Invoice : A report containing the line items and charges to client so they can pay for their workorder/s, may be generated at any stage after committal based on the clients credit status

The report containing the workorder line items that is sent to the client so they can pay for our services, can be generated after committal (cash sale clients), at release (clear clients) or after release for consolidations




Insoluble – ASTM D4055, ASTM D893.

Infrared Spectrometry with oxidation, sulfation, nitration and soot.

Infrared spectrometry – yield curve at absorbance or transmittance.


ISO 4406 – 99


Infrared spectrometry – Study of functional peaks.

Standard specially used for analysis of hydraulic systems. The code presents three numbers on a logarithmic scale to classify the oil cleaning based on the number of particles larger than 4.6 and 14 microns.

A matter of concern that may adversely impact on HSE.


Viscosity Index– ASTM D2270.


Karl Fischer

Kilometres Travelled

Knowledgeable People

Test that measures the percentage of water present in the lubricant (0,1% = 1000 ppm).

The number of kilometres travelled is based on the number of vehicles in the fleet, and the number of novated lease vehicles (based on a maximum of one vehicle per employee).  Kilometres travelled per year are calculated by multiplying the total number of vehicles by 20,000 (averaged across the organisation).

This group may consist of but is not limited to:
–        leaders and colleagues involved with the work/plant or equipment;
–        HSE committee members;
–        colleagues performing the work;
–        leaders;
–        HSE coordinators;
–        HSE committee representatives;
–        technical specialists such as HSE/insurance/property personnel;
–   local emergency services.



Laptop Computer


A set of information on a container which identifies the substance in the container, identifies whether the substance is hazardous and provides basic information about the safe use and handling of the substance.

Any small portable computer designed to be carried.  Sometimes referred to as notepad or notebook computer.

The action of generating the reports for all finalized authorized results


Licence to Operate

Laboratory Control Spike / Standard Control Spike

A country containing one or more laboratories and billing entities

These licences are divided into two categories:
1  Business Operating Licences
2  Licences necessary for the business unit to operate could include but are not limited to:
–        pollution control/environment protection/dangerous goods;
–        waste disposal/trade waste agreement;
–        pipeline;
–        land use/development consents;
–        air or water discharge permits;
–        consent to destroy (Aboriginal artefacts);
–        special environmental permits (eg. fisheries, creek crossings, special area access, vegetation removal etc);
–        pressure vessel certificates.

Equipment/process work licences/certificates:  Individual licences to operate could include but are not limited to:
–        crane;
–        welding;
–        forklift;
–        pressure vessel;
–        elevated platform;
–        hydrostatic testing;
–        licence to handle ozone depleting substances;
–        hazardous waste transport.

Limits of Exposure

Line Manager

Lost Time Injury

This is based on the Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) – the standard which sets the maximum allowable exposure of people to chemical agents and other harmful substances, over a given period of time

Any employee who has others reporting to him or her, or who has the authority to allocate resources.

Any work related injury that results in a fatality, permanent disability or time lost from work of one day/shift or more, which has been accepted by the insurer.

Lost Time Injury Frequency Rate (LTIFR)

Number of lost time injuries x 1000,000 ¸  (2,000 hours worked x number of employees).


Major Hazard Facility

Management Review

Manual Handling

A facility which generates/handles dangerous goods in large quantities that in the event of an incident could have the consequence of which may potentially rival those of natural disasters in terms of loss of life, injury impacts to the environment or damage to property.

An overall assessment of the Always safe HSE management system, to determine its continuing suitability, adequacy and effectiveness

Any task requiring the use of physical exertion by a person, including lifting, moving, carrying, pushing, pulling or restraining any animal, person or thing.

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)


Medical Treatment Injury

A document issued by the manufacturer or distributor of a chemical describing the properties and hazards of a material or substance including its identity, normal uses, physical and chemical properties, ingredients, health hazards, relevant first aid and emergency medical procedures, precautions to be taken in normal use, precautions to be taken in dealing with an emergency, storage and transport requirements and a contact point for further information

Method Blank

Any work related injury that results in a person requiring medical treatment other than first aid that has been accepted by the insurer.

Medical Treatment Injury Frequency Rate (MTIFR)



Number of medical treatment injuries x 1,000,000 ¸ (2,000 hours worked x number of employees).

Contains the code, name, description, analytes, units and other parameters that will end up on the COA

Contains the code, name, description, analytes, units and other parameters that will end up on the COA.


Mobility-Impaired Person

Motor Vehicle Crash Rate

Miscibility between samples.

A person with physical, mental or sensory impairment, either temporary or permanent.

Number of motor vehicle crashes x 1,000,000 / (km travelled x number of motor vehicles).



Matrix Spike

Matrix Spike Duplicate


Natural or Synthetic Fibers

Near Miss


Observed by Ferrogrophic Analysis sometimes indicating contamination or deterioration filter.

Any unplanned incidents that occurred at the workplace which, although not resulting in any injury or disease, had the potential to do so.

Indicator of oil degradation in gasoline and natural gas powered engines.




Unwanted sound, meaningless sound, or random sound.

A legislative infringement or declaration to improve a system issued by an external authority.

Needs Preparation : Analysis method connected to a PR or DP method, volume and or amount may be included factors in calculating the final result


O Flash C: Flash point


Occupational Health and Safety Representative

The temperature at which the lubricant will produce enough volatile vapors to ignite when exposed to the flame test. (ASTM D-92).

Any person on the premises, including employees, contractors, tenants, customers and visitors.

The Occupational Health and Safety Representative is elected by the relevant workgroup in accordance with the relevant legislation.  The role of the representative is to represent their colleagues in the consultative process.  The function of the representative is limited to issues that may have implications for the occupational health and safety and the impacts on the environment of the workgroup.

Occupational Rehabilitation


Officer Interviews

A process aimed at monitoring injured or ill employees and returning them to suitable employment.  It involves early intervention with appropriate, adequate and timely services based on assessment of the injured or ill employee’s individual needs to produce a safe and durable return to work.

The office of a client from which the workorder contact is associated with

Questioning techniques to ensure that relevant personnel are aware of the system requirements.

Oil Hours

Organisation Nominated First Aiders


Service time in oil.

A colleague appointed by their leader, in consultation with the Occupational Health Manager or approved Occupational Health professional, to provide first aid for their colleagues.

Indicator of tendency of degradation of the oil.

Ozone Depleting Substances

Ozone layer

A gas or vapour which when released, breaks down ozone in the upper atmosphere, including in particular refrigerants (CFCs and HCFCs) and fire retardants (halons, freons).

A layer of gases in the upper atmosphere rich in Ozone (O3), which intercepts ultra violet radiation.


Package / Suite



A collection of schedules that may span multiple departments and support revenue distribution between them for the costing e.g.

Polychlorinated biphenyls is one of a group of once widely used industrial chemicals.  They were formerly used as dielectric fluids in transformers and capacitors.  Prior to 1972, they were used as hydraulic and other industrial fluids.  Their importation was barred in 1979.  Conditions for use are restricted by and in various jurisdictions.

Open Cup Combustion Point- ASTM D92.

Peak HSE Committee


Permit to Work

The peak HSE committee within the organisation.

Grease penetration (degree NLGI).

A formal system that identifies high risk operations and controls the risk through the issue of special permits and procedures.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)



Equipment provided to protect colleagues from the risk of injury by creating a barrier against workplace hazards.

Glare Point Open Cup – ASTM D92.

Flash Point Closed Small Volume Vessel – ASTM D7236.


Physical-Chemical Analysis

Pickling Tower

Determination of pH.

Includes common tests for physical and chemical properties. For example, viscosity, TAN, etc.

Removal of air removes volatile organic chemicals (such as solvents) from contaminated water, causing them to evaporate. The polluted water is sprayed down through a tower filled with packaging materials while the air is blown up through the tower. Contaminants evaporate into the air, leaving significantly reduced levels of pollutants in the water. The air is treated before being released into the atmosphere.


Plant and Equipment

Position Description

The generic name for any machinery, equipment or appliance.

This includes but is not limited to:

–        lifts and cranes;

–        pressure equipment;

–        machinery;

–        hoists;

–        mobile plant;

–        lasers;

–        radiation sources;

–        turbines;

–        powered tools;

–        scaffolds and temporary access equipment; and

–   vehicles.

A document which describes the authority, accountabilities and competencies for an individual position.

Potential Consequence



The likely degree of loss caused by a hazardous event/condition expressed in illness, injury, equipment or property loss or harm to the environment.

Pre-Preparation : Processes such as leachate, compositing and pre-treating samples prior to preparation for analysis

Preparation Run : Sample prepartion where a specific volume and or amount of sample is digested / extracted / concentrated prior to being analysed, volume and or amount values are entered in result entry

Pre-Prep Run


Process date

A run built from a PP method type, starts in the sample worklist

How likely an incident will occur following exposure to a hazard.

Date and time the sample was received in the laboratory.


Can cover a very broad range of work activities performed by either organisation or contract personnel including; construction, testing, maintenance, changing a process or acquiring new technology.



QC – Quality Control

QC Lot

Quality Control : A report containing details of the quality control results e.g. MB, LCS, DUP and MS related to the clients workorder

A report containing details of the quality control results, like MB, LCS, DUP and MS related to the clients workorder.

A lot that may vary in size and life based on the number of positions in the qc template or qc lot life

QC Lot Life

QC Template


A value that determines how long a qc lot stays open for, may be set to 0 if a new qc lot is to be created for each new run

A template stored a test level defining the sequence of qc added when a DP, PR or DE run is created

Quality Control – Interpretive : A report containing more elaborated details of the quality control parameters e.g. holding times, analysis times, frequency and outliers

QCI – Quality Control Interpretive



A report containing more elaborated details of the quality control parameters, like holding times, analysis times, frequency and outliers.

Chloride content – Desxil method.

Corrosion on copper blade (3h @ 100 C) – ASTM D130.




Density – ASTM D1298.


Mineral oil content by infrared.



Resistivity for ester-phosphate fluids.

Generally copied from quote and tender information, can help template a workorder by storing recipient and report, analysis, pricing and charges





Rotary Pump Oxidation – ASTM 2272.

Any period of time away from the workplace.

Maintenance inspection actions.

Recurrence of the injury

Red Oxides


Recurrent injury cases are recorded and cross-referenced with the original record (unless the original incident was more than 12 months ago) but not counted as a separate occurrence unless there was an identifiable identified incident associated with the recurrence .

Ferrous oxide particles (red) observed by Ferrography indicating a serious moisture problem.

Regular Sample (client’s sample)

Register of Injury


Regular Team Meeting

Those incidents that result in injury, but where no time is lost and medical treatment is not required.

Regular will be defined by the business unit, in line with, the risk associated with the work or any applicable legislation.

Intervals between team meetings will not exceed three months.

Rehabilitation Providers

Report Schedule / Sale Item

Representante del empleado

A group of rehabilitation professionals, accredited by the local workers compensation authority who provide specialised services to assist in the return to work of ill or injured employees.

A line item added to workorder login containing details of the report schedule, price and analytes to be reported

Un miembro de un comité de HSE que es elegido por sus colegas dentro de la unidad de negocio para ser la voz de los empleados sobre cuestiones de salud y seguridad.

Result Entry

Review of Environmental Factors (REF)


The are to enter results, review qc and historical data, approval and authorisation is executed here

A formal documented assessment prepared appropriate to the size and environmental significance of a project.  Each assessment shall include an environmental management plan.

The likelihood of a particular harm, associated with an issue, actually occurring to people, property or the environment.

Risk Assessment

Risk of cancer

A recognised methodical process to evaluate the risk associated with a particular issue.

A number, usually expressed in exponential form (ie 1 x 10 -6, meaning one in a million), which describes the increased possibility of an individual developing cancer from exposure to toxic materials. Calculations that produce cancer risk numbers are complex and typically include a number of hypotheses that tend to make the estimated final risk number conservative.





Safety Coordinator

In the context of the Always safe management system, incorporates health, safety and environment.

In the context of the Always safe management system, incorporates health, safety and environment.

Any person or persons designated by the business unit to assist management in the implementation and coordination of the Always safe system.

Safety Notice Board


Sample Run / Prep Run

Notice board displaying health, safety and environmental legislation, statistics and general HSE issues.

A sample submitted by a client or taken by field staff, logged into a workorder and may be split into a number of different bottles

A run built from a PP / PR method type, starts in the sample worklist

Sample Runlist

Sample Worklist

Serious Sliding Particles

A list of runs for all he sections you have access to that may be confirmed for result entry (PP, PR) or sent to the instrument worklist (DP)

A list of samples for a parituclar section that may be ready to be built onto a sample / prep run

Large ferrous particles that are produced by sliding contacts.


Significant Incident


Large Particle Spectrometry(> 10 µm) : Fe, Cr, Pb, Cu, Sn, Al, Ni, Ag, Si, B, Na, Mo e Ti – ASTM D6595.

An incident which caused, or in slightly different circumstances could have caused, serious harm to a person, or serious damage to property, as defined in legislation, or significant environmental contamination.  A significant incident may require notification to one or more statutory authorities.

Solubility of samples in water, ethanol and paraffinic mineral oil.

SP: Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP)


SRN – Sample Receipt Notification

The measurement of small (less than 7 micron) and metal particles dissolved in oil. ASTM D 6595.

Sample Receipt Notification : A report generated a workorder committal confirming receipt of samples and scheduled reporting date, may include requested analysis

A report generated a workorder committal confirming receipt of samples and scheduled reporting date, may include requested analysis.

Standard Operating Procedure

Steel Alloys

Steel Alloys

A documented and approved procedure that identifies the controls to carry out a task which is performed routinely.

Yellow particles indicating wear of copper alloy. May indicate wear on bearings, bushes and thrust washers.

Yellow particles indicating wear of copper alloy. May indicate wear on bearings, bushes and thrust washers.




Subcontracting : An external or typed report that can be uploaded to

A person (other than an organisation employee) or an entity performing work on behalf of a contractor.

Indicator of oil degradation in diesel engines.





Acidity Theory – ASTM D664, ASTM D974.

Any vessel of concrete, steel or fibreglass construction used to collect or store liquids and greater than 250 l in capacity;

–        below ground: includes both fully and partially below the ground; and

–   above ground:  sitting on the ground surface or on a structure above ground.

The instance/s of a test/s on a a workorder, contains the bottle and lab, status and section




A single aspect or part of an overall job or process.

Theory of Basicidade – ASTM D2896.

An instance of a method performed in a particular section of the laboratory, carries the approval and authorise permissions


Trabalho quente


Qualquer trabalho que possa criar uma fonte de ignição (por exemplo, faíscas, chama nua, superfície muito quente).


Verification of Documentation


Viscosidade Absoluta (Dinâmica)

Review of relevant documents to ensure systems are in place eg policy, procedures, work instructions.

Reciprocating motion or force, often defined in terms of frequency and amplitude, of an object or structure.

A relação entre a tensão de cisalhamento e a taxa de cisalhamento, representando a resistência interna do fluido ao fluxo. Embora a unidade fundamental da viscosidade absoluta ou dinâmica seja o equilíbrio, os resultados são frequentemente expressos em centipoise (cP). 1 centipoise é igual a 0,01 poise.




Measurement of the oil flow time at 40 ° C or 100 ° C.

Viscosity @ 100 C – ASTM D445.

Viscosity @ 40 C – ASTM D445.


Viscosity at other temperatures – ASTM D445.





An independent and confidential counselling service and is the preferred provider in Australia.  Business units that operate outside Australia must use an approved provider that offers a similar service.  The free of charge advice can be on such issues as work-related difficulties, family issues, financial and legal matters, alcohol and drug-related problems, serious illness, emotional problems or conflict with other people.

A government regulating body who administers, implements and enforces legislation covering occupational health and safety, workers’ compensation, dangerous substances and labour regulation.

One or more sample/s with one or more analysis for a particular client, includes a set of reports including SRN, COA and Invoice and has a unique reference number e.g. WC1300300

Workorder Progress


A list of active workorders which is broken up by overdue and due dates, where workorders may be released from

Any site, facility or activity for which the organisation has HSE responsibility.


Zero Tolerance

A client who may impose financial penalty for late results